Tuesday, 31 March 2020

  THE MINES ACT 1952


Discuss the main object, aim ,scope of the Mines Act 1952 Notes
MAIN AIMS & OBJECT OF MINES ACT 1952 


MAIN OBJECT , AIMS AND SCOPE OF THE MINES ACT 1952


Introduction

Labour Legislation in India grew with the growth of industry , a number of Labour legislation in India have been passed with a view to upgrade, promote the condition of the Labour keeping in view the development of industry and national economy . After Independence the national Government paid much attention to the improvement of the conditions of Labour , The Mines Act of 1952 is one of such legislation which was passed in Independent India.


Aims, Object & Scope Of the Mines Act 1952


In India The Mines Act of 1952 was passed to modify and amalgamate the law relating to the regulation of Labour and Safety in Mines.

One of the the main object for which this Act has been passed, is to adjust the conditions of workers working in the Mines. The Mines Act 1952 , therefore aims to regulate, The working condition of workers ,Annual leave with wages of the workers working in the mines , Hours and Limitations of employment .

The main purpose of enacting the Mines Act 1952 is to ensure adequate safety measures and to promote the health and safety of workers employed in the mines .

The following are the Aims and Objects of the Mines Act 1952 ( According to the Act )

(1) To make provisions as to Health and Safety of workers employed in mines such as Drinking water , Conservancy , medical appliances, responsibility of the owner agent , or manager to give notice of accidents to proper authority .

Provisions related to the Health and Safety of the workers are provided under (Section 19-27) of the Mines Act 1952 , Read more About Health and Safety of the workers .

(2)  To make Provisions relating to hours and Limitations of employment such as weekly day of rest , compensatory day of rest , hours of work above ground and below ground night shift , extra wages for overtime work , limitation of daily hours of work.

Provisions relating to the Hours and Limitations of employment are Provided under (Sections 28-48 ) of the Mines Act 1952 , Read Here Detailed Provisions of Hours and Limitations of employment .

(3) To lay down Provisions regarding leave with wages , mode of recovery of unpaid wages .

Provisions relating to the Leave with wages , and mode of recovery of unpaid wages are provided under ( Section 49-56 ) of the Mines Act 1952 .

(4) It seeks to achieve fair and Healthy environment in the Mines through inspecting staff . For efficient administration of the Act , the central Government has been authorized to appoint Chief Inspector, and Inspectors who are assigned various powers and functions under the Act .

Provisions relating to Certifying surgeon ,  Chief Inspector, Inspector appointment , powers and Functions are provided under ( Section 5-11 ) of the Mines Act . Read Here

(5) For the purpose of appointment of authority to enquire into accident committees are constituted by the Central Government, Committees which are formed are vested with the powers of the civil courts.



Provisions relating to the Committees , functions , and powers is provided under (Section 12-15) of the Mines Act 1952 .

(5) It also Aims to achieve due compliance of law of Mines . The act also provides penalties and procedures. Punishment envisaged under the Act is in accordance with the gravity of the offense.

Monday, 30 March 2020

Discuss the Provisions under the Mines Act 1952, ensuring the Health and Safety of the workers Employed in Mines 


Health and Safety measures, provision, regulations under the mines Act 1952 notes
HEALTH AND SAFETY MEASURES UNDER THE MINES ACT 1952 NOTES


CONTENT

  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. IMPORTANT DEFINITION
  3. PROVISIONS RELATING TO HEALTH AND SAFETY UNDER MINES ACT 1952
  • DRINKING WATER ( SECTION 19 )
  • CONSERVANCY ( SECTION 20 )
  • MEDICAL APPLIANCES ( SECTION 21 )
  • POWER OF THE INSPECTOR WHEN CAUSES OF DANGER NOT EXPRESSLY PROVIDED AGAINST EXIST OR WHEN EMPLOYMENT OF PERSONS IS DANGEROUS ( SECTION 22 )
  • POWER  TO PROHIBIT EMPLOYMENT IN CERTAIN CASES ( SECTION 22-A )
  • NOTICE TO BE GIVEN OF ACCIDENTS ( SECTION 23 )
  • POWER OF THE GOVERNMENT TO APPOINT COURT OF INQUIRY IN CASES OF ACCIDENTS ( SECTION 24 )
  • NOTICE OF CERTAIN DISEASES ( SECTION 25 )
  • POWER TO DIRECT INVESTIGATION TO CAUSE OF DISEASE ( SECTION 26 )
  • PUBLICATION OF REPORTS ( SECTION 27 )  

INTRODUCTION 

The main aim and objects of the Mines Act 1952 is to regulate the working conditions in mines by providing for measures required to be taken for the welfare and security of workers employed in Mines And to Make Provisions as to Health , Safety , Hours And Limitations of employment , leave with wages etc . In our previous post we have discussed about the Provisions relating to the Hours and Limitations under the mines act. This post is all about about the Provisions relating to the  Health and Safety in under the Mines Act 1952 .

Section 19-27 of the Mines Act , 1952 enumerates certain Provisions to ensure the Health and Safety of workers employed in mines . These Provisions are with regard to following matters -

(1) Drinking water
(2) Conservancy
(3) Medical appliances
(4) Responsibility of the owner
(5) Agent or manager to give notice of accidents to proper authority .

Some important definition under this Act , relating to this Provisions

Who are Agent Under the Mines Act ?

Definition

Section 2(c) of the Mines Act 1952 Defines

 Agent : "Agent" when used in relation to a mine , means every person , whether appointed as such or not , who acting or purporting to act on behalf of the owner , takes part in the management, control , supervision or direction of the mine or of any part thereof .


PROVISIONS RELATING TO HEALTH AND SAFETY UNDER THE MINES ACT 1952


The provisions relating to the Health and Safety Are Discussed below -

(1) Drinking water (Section 19)

The Mines Act 1952 prescribes effective arrangements of drinking water in every Mines .


Every Mines shall maintain sufficient supply of whole some drinking water at suitable points for the workers employed there in .

 
Place with drinking water facility should be legibly marked as "Drinking Water" in a language understood by a majority of the person's employed in the mine . And shall be situated within six meter's of any washing place , urinal or latrine .

2) Conservancy ( Section 20 )

Every Mines shall provide a sufficient number of latrines and urinals separately for males and females . And Latrines and urinals of prescribed types so situated in convenient and accessible to person's employed in the mine at all times .

Moreover, Latrines and urinals of prescribed types shall be adequately lighted , ventilated and must be maintained in clean and sanitary condition.

3) Medical Appliances (Section 21)

Every mine shall provide and maintain such number of First-aid boxes or cupboards equipped accessible during all working hours . Sufficient number of Medic-Box shall be kept
in the charge of a responsible and trained person.

Moreover in case of any Bodily Injury or illness of any Workers employed therein , every mine shall made readily available  of such arrangement for the conveyance to hospitals or dispensaries of such bodily Injury or ill persons .

When more than one hundred and fifty persons are employed in any Mine , then every Mines employing more than 150 person's must provide and maintain a first-aid room with such equipment along with the charge of such medical and nursing staff .

4) Power of the Inspector when causes of danger not expressly provided against exist or when employment of persons is dangerous (Section 22)

(1)If in any mines such causes of danger arise which is not expressly provided or no express Provision is made under this act and it appears to the Chief Inspector or an Inspector of that mine or part thereof or any matter , connected with the mine or with the control , management of the mine , is dangerous to human life or safety , then Chief Inspector and Inspector under this Act is provided with the power to give notice in writing to the owner , agent , manager of the mine stating the matter which is hazardous and cause serious menace and which is require the same to be compensate within particular time and in the way provided in notice.

(1-A) If the owner , Agent , manager of the mine fails to comply with the terms of notice within the given time , the chief Inspector can prohibit the employment of those whose employment is not required.

(2)  If the chief inspector of any mine is aware of the thing that is likely to cause danger to the mine as well as to persons working there then the chief Inspector or Inspector can prohibit the extraction or reduction of pillars or blockade of minerals, by making an order in the form of writing to the owner, agent, or manager of mine


(3) If chief Inspector or Inspector is of opinion that there is urgent and immediate danger to the life or safety of any Persons employed in mine , then the inspector or chief inspector is vested with power to prohibit the work until he is satisfied.


(3-A) The workers whose employment has been prohibited shall be entitled to full wages.

Provided that The agent , manager , owner may instead of paying such full wages provide such person with an alternative employment at the same wages .

(4) The notice provided under Sub-section (1) or an order made under sub-section (1-A) , sub-section 2 or sub-section 3 by an inspector, the owner , agent or manager of the mine may , within ten days after the receipt of the notice or order , may appeal against the same to the Chief Inspector who may confirm, modify or cancel the notice or order .

(6) If the owner , agent , or manager of the mine objects to a notice sent by the Chief Inspector or to an order made by the Chief Inspector, he may , within twenty days after the receipt of the notice containing the requisition or the order or after the date of the decision on appeal , as the case may be , send his objection in writing stating the grounds thereof to the Central Government.

(5) Power to prohibit employment in certain cases (Section 22-A)

Section 22 Deals with the Power of Inspector when causes of danger not expressly provided under this act, 

(1)Under this Section if the owner , agent , manager of a mine fails to any provision, then the chief inspector is vested with power to give notice in writing for the same.


(2) If the Owner fails to obey with the term of provision of this Act, the chief inspector is vested with power under sub-section 1 to make an order in writing.

(3) The prohibited workers under sub-section 2 shall be entitled to full wages for the period of the same.


(6)  Notice To be given of accidents (Section 23)

Whenever there occurs in or about a mine -

(a) An accident causing of loss of life or serious Bodily Injury or
(b) An explosion, ignition, spontaneous heating, outbreak of fire or Irish of water or other liquid matter , or
(c) An influx of inflammable or noxious gases , or
(d) A breakage of ropes , chains or other gear by which person's or materials are lowered or raised in a shaft or an incline ,or
(e) An over-winding of cages or other means of conveyance in any shaft while person's or materials are being or raised ,or
(f) A premature collapse of any part of the working, or
(g) Any other accidents which may be prescribed.

The owner , agent, or manager of the mine shall give notice of the occurrence to such authority in such form and within such time as may be prescribed , and he shall simultaneously post one copy of the notice on a special notice board in the prescribed manner at a place where it may be inspected by trade union officials.

In case of Loss of life , the authority of the mine is responsible to make an inquiry within 2 months, of receiving notice.


In case of Bodily Injury , the owner , agent , manager of the mine shall enter in a register such occurrence in the prescribed form and copies of such entries shall be furnished to the Chief Inspector once in a quarter .


(7) Power of the Government to appoint court of inquiry in cases of accidents (Section 24)

 
In case of accidents, Section 24 empowered the government to appoint court of inquiry,



(8) Notice of certain diseases (Section 25)

 
Section 25 provides for the Notice of certain diseases, if the disease is connected with the mining operations, the responsible authority of the mine shall send notice to the Chief inspector/inspector, within particular time as may be prescribed. 

If the The medical practitioner appointed under this Act is believed that any person is suffering from any disease, then he shall immediately send a report to the chief inspector stating particulars like name, address, and disease of that particular person.

 If after receiving the notice of medical practitioner, if it is confirmed to the inspector, the chief inspector shall pay such fee as may be prescribed, and such fee paid by the inspector is recoverable from the responsible authority of the mine i.e- owner, agent, manager.


(9) Power to direct investigation to cause of disease (Section 26)

 
Section 26 of this Act provides for the Power to direct investigation to cause of disease,for the purpose of investigation the Central Government if such situation arise may is empowered to appoint competent authority for the same. Moreover they may also appoint one or more person having a special knowledge in such inquiry.


(10) Publication of reports (Section 27)

 
 Section 27 of this Act deals with the Publication of reports submitted by a court of inquiry at such time and in such manner.

Saturday, 28 March 2020

RADIOACTIVE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA, LEGAL PROVISIONS, MEANING, and COMPLETE DETAILS 

Radioactive Waste Management in India, Meaning  ,Definitions,types , notes List of Nuclear Plants in india
Radioactive waste management in India 


CONTENT

  • Radioactive waste management in India
  • Meaning of Radioactive Waste
  • Types of Radioactive Waste
  • Locations of Nucleur plants in India
  • Legal Framework in India 
  • Atomic Energy Act , 1962
  • Important Definitions
  • Powers of Central Government
  • Offenses and Punishment
  • Atomic Energy Regulatory Board
  • Conclusion

Radioactive Waste Management in India   

The era of 21st Century expanses the potentiality of nuclear energy. The powerful sovereigns have been conducting full fledged experiments on nuclear energy to escalate the defence system since a long time. Nuclear energy is also a potential source of energy which can balance up the deficit of high demand for energy. India is amongst the top world leaders who have successfully conducted nuclear test.in the year 1998 in Pokhran, India conducted a series of Nuclear test. Later in the year 2005 India signed an Indo-US Nuclear deal with USA.
Nuclear energy is produced in Nuclear power plants.During the production of Nuclear Energy, it emits Radioactive Waste which can create hazardous side effect.

MEANING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE
Radioactive wastes are those wastes which are emitted by nuclear fuel while carrying on the process of mining, generating and other operational processes in nuclear plants, defence and scientific research and other allied by-products nuclear fuel. Their are many harmful effects of the Radioactive waste to the environment as well to the mankind including genetic disorder, mass epidemic etc. The toxic gases which is released by a radioactive waste is very harmful moreover it can cause depletion of a pure environment. The results of radioactive wastes can be seen either instantly or after a long period of time.

TYPES OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

Radioactive wastes can be categorized into three distinct parts on the basis of the radioactivity and the level of harm they cause. They are namely:

   1.  Exempt waste: Some radioactive wastes may be merely harmless even though they are called radioactive waste.  Man, and animal can co-exist with the exempt level of radioactive waste. This type of waste does not create any threat to Environment.

   2.  Low and intermediate waste: This category of Radioactive waste possesses a little quantum of radioactivity causing harm in meagre amount.  All the types of Radioactive Waste case some amount of pollution. Radioactive waste are again sub-divided as:

a.   Primary Waste: This type of waste contains radioactively contaminated equipment.

b.  Secondary Waste: It contains discards of operational processes like protective rubber and plastic wears, cellulosic and fibrous material, organic ion exchange resins filter cartridges and others.

   3.  High level waste: This category of waste arises from the liquid radioactive waste mostly generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel.



LOCATIONS OF NUCLEAR PLANTS IN INDIA
   1.  Tarapur in Maharashtra

   2.  Rawatbhata in Rajasthan

   3.  Kudankulam in Tamilnadu

   4.  Kaiga in Karnataka

   5.  Kakrapar in Gujrat

   6.  Kalpakkam in Tamilnadu

   7.  Narora in Uttar Pradesh



LEGAL FRAMEWORK IN INDIA

Radioactive waste is a rising concern with the emerging growth of nuclear energy since it is the fifth important source of energy in India. India is a welfare state as directed by the directive principles of state policy. Article 48(A) mentions," State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country." But at the same time India also want to strengthen the defence sector of the country. As a result, India has to take some balancing measure to solve the tussle between the two. For this purpose, the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 was brought and Atomic Energy Regulatory Board was constituted in 1983.



ATOMIC ENERGY ACT, 1962

This act is an early measure to handle the adverse effects of radioactivity.

   1.  Applications of this Act:

a.   This Act is applicable to whole of India. [Sec1(2)]

b.  This Act also provides for Governing of Factories act, 1948. [Sec 23]

c.   The Atomic Act of 1962, is to be made effective notwithstanding anything inconsistent provided in other enactments. [Sec 28]

   2.  Important Definitions:

a.   Sec 2(1)(a) “atomic energy” means energy released from atomic nuclei as a result of any process, including the fission and fusion processes;

b.  Sec 2(1) (h) “radiation” means gamma rays, X-rays, and rays consisting of alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons, protons and other nuclear and sub-atomic particles, but not sound or radio-waves, or visible, infrared or ultraviolet light;

c.   Sec 2(1)(i) “radioactive substance” or “radioactive material” means any substance or material which spontaneously emits radiation in excess of the levels prescribed by notification by the Central Government.

   3.  Powers of Central government:

This Act confers many powers upon the Central government to regulate all the matters relating to nuclear energy and its ancillary matters.

a.   Sec 3 provides various rights such as production, development, use, and dispose of atomic energy. It also enjoys the right to manufacture or otherwise produce any radioactive substance. It confers right to buy or otherwise acquire, store and transport any prescribed or radioactive substance

b.  As per Sec 3(e), the central government can exercise right to ensure safe disposal of radioactive wastes.

   4.  Offenses and Punishment: 

Section 24 lays down the punishment provision for any violation or contraventions of any provisions of this Act.

a.   For contraventions of Sections 14, 17, 17(4), 18(2), a punishment for 5 years imprisonment or fine or both, is provided.

b.  a punishment for 1 year for contravention of sections (5-8) or any other provisions.

ATOMIC ENERGY REGULATORY BOARD

The Central Government of India in exercise of power conferred upon it by the sections 16, 17 and 23 of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 constituted the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board in 1983.

a.   Constitution of AERB: This Board must be constituted with five members including a full time chairmen, an ex-officio member and three other part time member.

b.     Powers of AERB: It has all the powers to lay down the safety standards and frame rules and regulations about regulatory and safety requirements provided under the Act. The Chairman has been empowered to enforce radiation safety.

CONCLUSION

India is a rising power nation in the dominium of world politics. So, nuclear energy is an integral option in this aspect. However, India, being welfare state and also as a signee to various treaties on world environment, must have also to protect the natural environment. As a result India has to exercise great control over its nuclear policy as well as for fighting against radioactive waste.

Wednesday, 25 March 2020


The Mines Act 1952



mines act 1952, hours and limitation notes
Hours and limitation Notes, The mines Act 1952


 

[Hours And Limitations Under the Mines Act 1952]


Q). Explain the Provisions relating hours and Limitations of Employment under the mines Act 1952?


 hours and Limitations of Employment under the mines Act 1952 notes
HOURS AND LIMITATION UNDER THE MINES ACT

Introduction

The Mines act 1952 has been enacted to Solved the various labour problems which has been considered as a hazard to the society .In India A number of legislation including The mines act 1952 has been enacted after the Independence . The mines act endeavor to regulate the working conditions of the Labour working in the mines by providing safety , security and certain amenities for them. The mines Act 1952 , provides for the various provisions relating to the health , safety , of mines workers , hours , limitations of employment, leave with wages , have been made. In our previous post we discussed about the Provision relating to the Appointment , Powers , functions of the Chief Inspector and Inspector , You can check it out by clicking this Below link

Appointment, Powers , Functions of Inspector and Chief Inspector

Now , here in This post we will be discussing about the various Provisions and sections Relating to the Hours and Limitations of employment under the Mines Act 1952 , Read further to know all the details About the Hours and Limitations provisions under Mines act 1952 .

Section 28-48 Of the Mines Act ,1952 Deals with the Hours and Limitations of employment , The section relating to The Hours and Limitations under the mines Act goes like this -

         
HOURS AND LIMITATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT [SECTION 28-48]

Explain the Provisions relating hours and Limitations of Employment under the mines Act 1952 notes
Hours and limitations sections

       
1) Weekly Day of Rest [SECTION 28]  


As we know The mines Act endeavor to regulate the working condition of the Mine workers , under this Section of the Act it's provides for the Weekly Day of rest,  Section 28 provides

" No person shall be allowed to work in a mine on more than six days in any one week "

 2) Compensatory days of rest [SECTION 29]

 
As we have discussed in previous section of this Act that every working person shall get weekly day of rest, if in any case such day is deprived then such person shall be allowed such compensatory days of rest within that month or within following two month of that month.

  
Section 29(2)

 The manner in which Compensatory days of rest shall be allowed will be prescribed by the Central Government


3)Hours of work above ground [SECTION 30]
           
 Section 30 of this Act deals with the Hours of work above ground, it provides that the person who work above the ground shall not be allowed to work more than 48 hours or more than mine hours in a week and day respectively.


 
4. Hours of work below ground [Section 31]

 
Section 31 of the Act deals with the hours of work below ground, this section also provides that any person which are employed in mine below ground shall not be allowed to work more than Forty-eight hours and eight hours in a week or day respectively



5). NIGHT SHIFT [SECTION 32]

Where a person employed in a mine works on a shift which extends beyond midnight-
(a) for the purposes of sections 28 and 29, a weekly day of rest shall mean in his case a period of twenty-four consecutive hours beginning when his shift ends;
(b) the following day for him shall be deemed to be the period of twenty-four hours beginning when such shift ends, and the hours he has worked after midnight shall be counted in the previous day. 


6). EXTRA WAGES FOR OVERTIME [SECTION  33]

 Section 33 deals with the Extra wages for overtime, according to this section if a person employed in a mine works for more than working hours of mine (it includes both above and below ground) which we discussed in last two sections then he/she shall be entitled to payment in respect of such overtime.



 7). Prohibition of employment of certain persons [SECTION 34] 

 Section 34 of this Act deals with the Prohibition of employment of certain persons, according to this section if a person works in any other mine then he/she shall not be allowed to work in a new mine.
8). Limitation of daily hours of work including overtime work. [SECTION 35]

 This Section deals with the Limitation of daily hours of work including overtime work, this section provides that adding overtime no person shall be required to work for more than ten hours

9). NOTICES REGARDING HOURS OF WORK [SECTION 36]

 Section 36 of this Act deals with the Notices regarding Hours of work, According to this section the authority of the mine shall hang a notice board outside the office stating the opening and closing time of working hours.


 10). SUPERVISING STAFF [SECTION 37]

 Section 37 of the Act deals with the Supervising Staff, according to this section all the above discussed sections shall not be apply to the supervising staff of a mine.

 11). EXEMPTION FROM PROVISIONS REGARDING EMPLOYMENT [SECTION 38]


 This Section deals with the Exemption from provisions regarding employment, according to this section if in any mine if any emergency situation arise and which is harmful to the mine as well as to the safety of the worker then in such case the authority of the mine can allow some  persons to be employed in infringement of all the above discussed sections including hours of limitation above and below ground etc as such work is necessary for both mine as well as worker employed therein.


  12). POWER TO MAKE EXEMPTING RULES [SECTION 39] 

The central government] may make rules providing for for the exemption to such extent, in such circumstances and subject to such conditions as may be specified, from the provisions of sections 28, 30, 31, 34 or sub-section (5) of section 36--



 (a) During an emergency which involves risk to the safety of the mine as well as workers employed therein
 (b) During accident which may be actual or Act of God
(c) During Urgent repairs
(d) Due to technical reasons


13). Employment of persons below eighteen years of age [SECTION 40.] 

 Section 40 of the act deals with the employment of persons below eighteen years of age, according to this section no person who is below eighteen years of age shall be allowed to work in the mine.


14). Power to require medical examination [SECTION 43]  

 Section 43 provides Power to require medical examination, according to this section if an inspector appointed under this act in any mine is of the opinion that any person working in a mine is not an adult or any person employed in a mine is below sixteen years of age, then the inspector is empowered to serve a notice to the authority of the mine regarding the medical examination of such person shall be examined or shall not by a certifying surgeon.



 15). Prohibition of the presence of persons below eighteen years of age in a mine [SECTION 45]

 This section deals with the prohibition of the presence of persons below eighteen years of age in a mine, according to this section no person who is below eighteen years of age shall be allowed to be present in any premises of a mine above ground or in any place of the mine where any mining operation is connected.

Shoot-at-Sight Order Won't be Delayed if Telengana People Refuse to Stay Inside

 

telengana cm shoot at sight order
CM | TELANGANA


India, 25th Mar, 2020: The whole country is frozen past lockdown order. But some people were seen coming out with various nasty excuses, even though some of them were out in order to fill up their ration bags. To see the uncontrollable people, Telengana CM Chandrashekhar Rao got furious and announced that he would left with no option but to order for shoot-at-sight if people still continue to violate the lockdown order anyhow. He would also not hesitate to call for imposition of 24 hour curfew if people are reluctant to stay indoor.

    CM Rao further added that if situation gets beyond control, the Army would be ordered to take charge over the situation. He would also not think twice before ordering a complete shut down of the petrol pumps to keep people out of fuel to travel. If curfew emerges it would last from 7 PM to 6 AM daily. Meanwhile, all shops were advised to take their shutter down by 6 PM daily.

    He said that his government is taking away the passports of the patients who have been tested positive for Covid-19. The home isolates are strictly asked to follow the protocols or else they will face passport seizure.

 During this pandemic, all the state administration are doing their best to stop the spread of the this deadly virus, everywhere everything is put under lockdown all the people of the country are facing problems due to this ongoing pandemic, states government are taking proper measures and providing their best to help the stucked labourers and migrant workers and also by helping the people of below poverty line by providing them their essential commodities, Beside the government N.G.O's and other willing peoples are also coming forward with their helping hands to provide as much as they can according to their capacity.

After taking all these steps also the some people are not co-operating with the governments at this the Telangana CM - Chandrashekhar affrights in Anger, Stay at Home or face shoot-at-sight.


Tuesday, 24 March 2020

 Corona's Close Friend on the Way, All you Need to Know about Hantavirus

After Covid-19, Another Assailant Hantavirus Gearing up in Hunt of Human Life


rodents spreading hantavirus
The image is just symbolic.

Introduction

  The Corona Calamity is not yet over, but the Nature is ready for another ravaging with one more virus called Hantavirus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) spells that Hantavirus is a family of virus that stings from rodents into human body. The Hantavirus may cause varied diseases in humans.This disease might be a new headache for people. As the vaccine of covid-19 is not yet out, so the people won't be immune enough to fight against a new or unknown species of virus or bacteria. So, it must be prevented at the very days.
 

Symptoms of Hantavirus

  The Hantavirus-spread diseases show symptoms like fatigue, fever, and muscle aches, along with headaches, dizziness, chills and abdominal problems. The complexity of a disease depends on the immune mechanism of human body.
  

How Hantavirus Spreads

  Hantavirus reportedly spreads from rodents if any person comes into contact with any affected rodent species or any contaminated urine, droplets of saliva of any rodents.

Hantavirus Case Appears from China

  Just like its distant Cousin Corona, Hantavirus appears from China. The recent tweet from Global Times, a leading English Language Chinese Newspaper, brought a bolt from the blue mentioning that a person from Yunnan Province died while on his route to the province Shandong for some of his work on Monday. It was reported he was on a chartered bus. Further they wrote that the man was tested positive for Hantavirus. The other 32 passengers boarding with him were later tested for any possibility of Hantavirus.

Precautions of Hantavirus

  • Stand away from Rodents at a safe hand
  • Clean your house and nearing as soon as possible and use disinfecting liquid while cleaning
  • Ventilate your house at least 30 minutes before cleaning the house
  • We should not panic, instead we should prepare ourself by taking all the precautions, as we know precautions is better than cure.






Monday, 23 March 2020

Should You Swallow Hydroxychloroquine Approved by ICMR too Early?

icmr ,approves, hydroxycholoquine

India, 23rd Mar, 2020: World, at this moment is fighting tough against deadly Covid-19 caused by SARS-COV-2. The almost unsalvageable SARS-COV-2 is so far a headache for the scientists as they are not able to successfully test a vaccine. But research is going on everywhere to combat the disease at en early phase.
  In Indian context, the corona positive patients rose to a total of 455 as of today also recording a death toll of 8 patients. In the wake of situation getting worse, the Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR), has recently approved an Anti-Malarial pill called Hydroxycholorine for using it in high degree corona cases. As there is no definite medicine for Noval Corona, this medicine is able to show some good results. 
    
  As soon as this news started appearing everywhere, people started thinking that Hydroxycholoquine is the saviour. They did rush to pharmacies to buy a plenty of strips of Hydrocholoquine. But just wait a minute, the medicine Hydroxycholoquine has been used as the last resort in high degree cases. The World Health Organization has not confirmed it to be the passive cure for Covid-19. So, Hydroxychloroquine is a figure among ciphers.

  Now, the confused and fearing people will not think twice before consuming this medicine even if they have allied symptoms of noval corona or any other alike symptoms of corona. The most important thing to remember here is that not every flu is corona. So, do not panic and never be your own doctor. If you begin sneezing and have a mild heat of fever, do not ever buy and consume Hydrocholoquine all by yourself. The thing is different if your physician asks you to do so. 

  This confusion came to our notice when one of our visitor raised this question in the comment box below one of the posts. So, we decided to make everyone aware of it. Because your inside fear kills you more than the actual occurings.
icmr approves hydroxycholoquine
A Viewer Asking us Whether He Should Use Cholroquine
Before you panic, you should know about the symptoms and prevention of Corona


Sunday, 22 March 2020

Who are Inspectors and Chief Inspectors under the Mines Act 1952? Meaning and Definition, Appointment, Differences, Functions, Powers

Who are inspector and chief inspector under the mines act notes



CONTENT
  • INTRODUCTION
  • WHO ARE THE CHIEF INSPECTOR AND INSPECTOR
  • MEANING
  • DEFINITION
  • APPOINTMENT OF CHIEF INSPECTOR/INSPECTOR
  • FUNCTIONS OF CHIEF INSPECTOR/INSPECTOR
  • POWERS OF CHIEF INSPECTOR/INSPECTOR
  • CONCLUSION


INTRODUCTION
Labour problem constitutes a serious menace to the society and it needs to be solved , After, Independence In India, a number of Labour legislation have been enacted to Solved and upgrade the position of Labour , and also to govern the Labour management relations with view to the development of industry and national economy . Some of the  Legislation like The industrial Disputes Act 1947 , The trade union Act ,1926 , The factories Act , 1948 , The minimum wages Act 1948 & The mines Act 1952 etc were enacted .

Here , in this article we are discussing about the provisions Regarding the Appointment of chief Inspector and Inspectors and the Powers and functions Assign to them under the Mines Act 1952 .

The Mines Act 1952 has been brought into effect to improve and to make strong the law relating to the regulation of labour and safety in mines. This Act provides  for the the welfare and security measures which are required to be taken for the workers employed in mines . According to the section 2(j) of the mines Act , 1952 "Mines means any Engraving, where any operation is carried out for the purpose of searching, for or obtaining minerals has been or is being carried in ".

WHO ARE INSPECTORS AND CHIEF INSPECTORS UNDER THE MINES ACT 1952?

Meaning and definition of inspector and chief inspector under the mines act 1952

Meaning And Definition Of Chief Inspector and Inspector

MEANING

The Chief Inspectors and Inspectors are the duly qualified person's appointed by the central Government by notification in the official Gazette for all the territories to which this Act extends. Chief Inspectors and Inspectors which are appointed under this Act has many duties and responsibilities which is to be performed by them under the provisions of the Mines Act 1952 . One of the main duty and  responsibility of the Chief Inspectors and Inspectors is to Examine and Make inquiry relating to the state and condition of any Mine . 

DEFINITION

SECTION 2(d) (Chief Inspector):

"Chief Inspector" means the Chief Inspector of Mines appointed under this Act"


SECTION 2(i) (INSPECTOR):
"Inspector" means a Inspector of Mines appointed under this Act , and includes a District Magistrate when exercising any power or performing any duty of an inspector which he is empowered by this Act to exercise or perform. 


APPOINTMENT OF CHIEF INSPECTOR AND INSPECTOR


SECTION 5 of the Mines Act 1952 , provides the Provisions regarding the appointment of Chief Inspectors and Inspectors. The central government has the power to appoint as he thinks fit to be the Chief Inspector of mines. Morever he may appoint such number of Inspector of mines , subordinate to the Chief Inspector. The Central Government is however authorized to make such appointments only through notification in the official Gazette.

SECTION 5(1) The central Government may , by notification in the official Gazette , appoint such a person as possesses the prescribed qualifications to be chief Inspector of mines.


SECTION 5(2) according to this section no person shall be appointed in the mentioned post if he is directly or indirectly interested in any mine.


SECTION 5(3) according to this section, The District Magistrate by the special order can exercise the power and duties of an inspector

 
SECTION 5 (4) according to this section The Chief Inspector and all Inspectors shall be suppose to be public servants within the meaning of the Indian penal code (45 of 1860).


RELATED POST
HOURS AND LIMITATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT UNDER MINES ACT 1952

FUNCTIONS OF CHIEF INSPECTOR AND INSPECTOR

Section 6 deals with the functions of the Chief Inspector and inspector. The main and important functions are mention below.


Section 6(1) according to this section the Chief inspector appointed under this act with the prior approval of the Central Government, and if the approval is accepted, then the Chief Inspector by order in writing can authorise any inspector to exercise powers of the Chief inspector.


 Section 6(2) according to this section, the chief inspector appointed under this Act by order in writing has the power to restrict or can prohibit any of the inspector appointed under this Act.

Section 6(3) provides that , The Chief Inspector can declare upon the local areas within which Inspectors shall exercise their respective powers. 

POWERS OF CHIEF INSPECTOR AND INSPECTOR

Section 7 ,provides for the various powers of the Chief Inspector and Inspector of mines  . They are discussed below -

SECTION 7(1)
The Chief Inspector and any Inspector may -

(a) The Chief Inspector/ Inspector of the mines can examine and inquiry if he/she thinks fit in order to ascertain whether the provisions of this Act , and of the regulations , or any order made thereunder are observed in the case of any Mine.

(b) The chief Inspector/ Inspector of the mines as he/she thinks fit can enter , inspect and examine any Mine at any time by day or night.

 Exception to this clause is that the chief Inspector/Inspector shall not unreasonably exercise this power to obstruct the working of the mine.

(c) To examine and make inquiry respecting
       • The condition of any Mine
       • ventilation of the mine
       • sufficiency of the bye-laws
       • Health , safety , welfare of the person's employed in the mine .

(d) To exercise such other powers as may be prescribed.

SECTION 7(2) Provides that ,

The chief Inspector/ Inspector of the mine have the power to search any place and take possession of any material or any plan ,section , register or other record appertaining to the mine  after conducting Inquiry, examination , inspection if he/she found any reason to belief that an offence has been or being committed  . Section 94 of the code of criminal procedure 1973 , the chief Inspector and Inspector appointed under this act has been conferred with the power for Search and Seizure.


SECTION 8 provides that ,

According to this section, The Chief Inspector and Inspector of the mine by special order in writing can authorised any person in the service of Government for the purpose of surveying, measuring any mine.



CONCLUSION